Bridging Europe and Asia, Turkey is celebrated as the seat of the Byzantine and Ottoman Empires. Turkey became a republic in the aftermath of World War I, under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, who espoused the principles of secularism and nationalism. Significant changes to Turkey’s Government came into effect in 2018, when the nation adopted a presidential system separating the executive from the legislature. This followed an attempted coup in July 2016, and growing tensions with both the European Union and the United States. Indeed, whilst in the early 2000s Turkey harmonised some of its laws and regulations with EU standards in an effort to improve its chances of acceding to the EU, accession talks have almost entirely halted amid rule of law, judicial erosion, and human rights concerns.