Rankings

Overall

In 2021, the Dominica and St Kitts and Nevis Citizenship by Investment (CBI) Programme received the same overall score, ranking first in the CBI Index.

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I.

Dominica

  • Single applicant minimum outlay: US$100,000
  • No travel or residence requirements
  • No interview requirement; no language or culture test
  • Fast processing
  • Spotlight: the Dominica Citizenship by Investment Unit is highly competent and adheres to strict due diligence procedures
Dominica
I.

St Kitts and Nevis

  • Single applicant minimum outlay: US$150,000
  • No travel or residence requirements
  • No interview requirement; no language or culture test
  • Fast processing, with an Accelerated Application Process
  • Spotlight: the world’s oldest citizenship by investment programme, commonly referred to as the ‘Platinum Standard’
skn
III.

Grenada

  • Single applicant minimum outlay: US$150,000
  • No travel or residence requirements
  • No interview requirement; no language or culture test
  • Fast processing
  • Spotlight: citizens of Grenada can apply for an E-2 Visa to the United States and travel without a visa for up to 30 days to China
Grenada
IV.

St Lucia

  • Single applicant minimum outlay: US$100,000
  • No travel or residence requirements
  • No interview requirement; no language or culture test
  • Fast processing
  • Spotlight: the country has inaugurated a limited-time, Covid-19 government bonds option due to expire on 31 December 2021
saint lucia
V.

Antigua and Barbuda

  • Single applicant minimum outlay: US$130,000 (including a US$30,000 Government Fee)
  • Adult applicants must normally make one trip to take the oath of allegiance and show five days of residence within five years of citizenship, but this requirement has been temporarily suspended as a result of Covid-19 travel restrictions. Ordinarily, the travel and residence requirements can be fulfilled contemporaneously, and can be completed by minors after they turn 18
  • No interview requirement; no language or culture test
  • Fairly quick processing
  • Spotlight: is the only country allowing families to qualify by making a donation to a university fund
Antigua_op
VI.

Vanuatu

  • Single applicant minimum outlay: US$130,000
  • Applicants must normally travel to take the oath of allegiance, although this requirement has been temporarily suspended as a result of Covid-19 travel restrictions
  • No interview requirement; no culture test; no language test enforced in practice
  • Fast processing
  • Spotlight: there is an increased focus on improving due diligence, with the country now mandating an international specialist firm to vet applicants under its Development Support Programme
Vanuatu_op
VII.

Malta

  • Single applicant minimum outlay: €705,000 (including a €600,000 exceptional direct investment, €80,000 for five years of real estate rental, a €10,000 donation, and a €15,000 Due Diligence Fee)
  • Applicants must show at least 12 months of Maltese residence, and travel to apply for a residence card, give biometrics, and take the oath of allegiance
  • No interview requirement; no language or culture test
  • Processing can take no less than 13 months
  • Spotlight: Malta’s offering is capped at 1,500 main applicants in total and 400 per annum
Malta_op
VIII.

Montenegro

  • Single applicant minimum outlay: €365,000 (including a €250,000 investment, a €100,000 contribution, and a €15,000 Processing Fee)
  • One trip is required to receive the final decision on citizenship and supply biometrics
  • No interview requirement; no language or culture test
  • Fast processing
  • Spotlight: Montenegro’s CBI Programme will not be extended past its expiration date on 31 December 2021
Montenegro_op
IX.

Turkey

  • Single applicant minimum outlay: US$250,000
  • No residence requirement, but the applicant must travel to Turkey to obtain an investor residence card and provide biometrics
  • No interview requirement; no language or culture test
  • Fairly quick processing
  • Spotlight: to be valid, all investments must first be recognised by the relevant Government ministry
Turkey
X.

Egypt

  • Single applicant minimum outlay: US$250,000
  • No residence requirement, but the applicant must make one visit to Egypt to obtain a National ID Card before the grant of citizenship
  • No interview requirement; no language or culture test
  • Processing expected to be fairly quick
  • Spotlight: main applicants can include any official spouse and unmarried children under 21 in an application, but spouses can only receive citizenship two years after the main applicant
Egypt_op
XI.

Bulgaria

  • Single applicant minimum outlay: €257,000
  • Minimum physical presence is not required, but multiple trips must be made to apply for and register permanent residence
  • No interview requirement; no language or culture test
  • Citizenship takes between 18 and 24 months under the fast-track option (application for citizenship after 12 months of residence)
  • Spotlight: eligible family members are unable to apply with the main applicant and can only receive citizenship after the main applicant has naturalised
Bulgaria
XII.

Austria

  • Single applicant minimum outlay: actual or expected outstanding achievement of an economic nature
  • Applicants must make one trip to Austria to take the oath of allegiance
  • • Interview requirement; no language or culture test; must show a proven track record of achievement
  • Processing takes around two years
  • Spotlight: lack of clarity as to requirements and likelihood of success has generated reluctance towards applying for Austrian economic citizenship
Austria_op
XIII.

Jordan

  • Single applicant minimum outlay: US$750,000
  • No travel or residence requirements
  • No interview requirement; no language or culture test
  • Fast processing
  • Spotlight: naturalised Jordanians face bars to pursuing political or diplomatic positions
Jordan_op
XIV.

Cambodia

  • Single applicant minimum outlay: KHR 1 billion
  • No residence requirement for applicants for the donation route; nominal residence requirement for the approved investment route. Travel is required to obtain certificates and take the citizenship oath
  • No interview requirement; Khmer language and history test
  • Fairly quick processing
  • Spotlight: it is unclear when or if applicable laws will be amended to increase the minimum outlay
Cambodia

Learn more about the CBI Index by downloading the report below

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